Puerto Rican Migrant Farmworkers: Enduring
Experiences in Continental U.S. Agriculture


by  Ismael García Colón

This photo exhibit narrates the history of Puerto Rican farm labor migration to continental U.S. farms and the role of the Farm Labor Program (FLP). It begins with the situation of Puerto Rico that led to farm labor migration and the creation of FLP in the 1940s. The photos show the different aspects of the FLP: recruitment, transportation, distribution, and overseeing of workers. Other photos also illustrate the experiences, living conditions, and work of farmworkers.

PR Farmworkers

1898: The United States invaded Puerto Rico as a result of the Spanish American War 1900...
Bibliography: Bonilla-Santiago, Gloria. 1986. A Case Study of Puerto Rican Migrant...

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Resources by the Author

Colonial Migrants at the Heart of Empire: Puerto Rican Workers on U.S. Farms

Land Reform in Puerto Rico: Modernizing the Colonial State, 1941-1969 (University Press of Florida, 2009)


2020 “The COVID-19 Spring and the Expendability of Guestworkers.” Dialectical Anthropologist, September, Vol. 44, No. 3, 257-264.
2017 “Confronting the Present: Migration in Sidney Mintz’s Journal for The People of Puerto Rico,” American Ethnologist, August, Vol. 44, No. 3, 403-413.
2017 “We Like Mexican Laborers Better: Colonialism and Citizenship in the Formation of Puerto Rican Farm Labor in the United States,” Centro: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Summer, Vol. 29, No. 2, 134-171.
2013 “Enduring Migration: A Profile of Puerto Rican Workers in U.S. Farm Labor,” Centro: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, co-authored with Dr. Edwin Melendez, Fall, Vol. 25, No. 5, 96-119. (principal author Ismael García Colón).
2008 “Claiming Equality: Puerto Rican Farmworkers in Western New York,” Latino Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 269-289.
2006 “Playing and Eating Democracy: The Case of Puerto Rico’s Land Distribution Program, 1940s-1960s,” Centro: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall, 166-189.
2006 “Buscando Ambiente: Hegemony in Puerto Rico’s Land Reform and Subaltern Tactics of Survival, 1930s-1960s,” Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 1, January, 42-65

Ismael García Colón Bio